He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org. Since that time, researchers from the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere have been working to fulfill the Task Force’s mandate and a science of humane and ethical interrogation has begun to emerge. Since 1980, advancing and teaching the Scientific Detection of Deception and related Credibility Assessment Techniques; For Classes in the U.S.A. and Worldwide Nate Gordon, Director +1.215.732.3349. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. Gudjonsson, Gisli H. 2003. The Science of Interrogation: Rapport, Not Torture. Christopher E. Kelly, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Saint Joseph's University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). It is typically a series of questions put to a person suspected of committing a crime or indirectly involved in the commission of a crime. Further, the “information gathering approach,” as it is known, preserves the ethical principles of fairness and justice and is legally permissible. In sum, we are finding that the parsimonious six domain framework is useful for research in terms of describing what interrogators do and what is related to relevant outcomes such as cooperation and confession. Here's a glimpse at what science has to say regarding the efficacy of various interrogation methods. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In collaboration with Allison Redlich and Jeaneé Miller, I have been part of the HIG’s research agenda since its inception, and the remainder of this post will summarize the research we have been working on. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. It is used to get evidence that may or may not establish guilt. Category scientific interrogation, memory, interrogation methods, lie detectors, lie detection, interrogation. My colleagues and I were initially tasked with developing a systematic survey to be deployed online to the operational community of military and criminal interrogators, investigators, and HUMINT gatherers in the United States and later, around the world. This article was originally published on The Conversation . Further, when we distinguished between those interrogations that ended in full or partial confessions and where suspects denied their guilt entirely, we found that both the presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition were significantly and substantially more likely to be emphasized among the suspects who denied guilt. Finally, Americans were significantly more likely to employ the emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and collaboration domains relative to practitioners from Canada and other European nations. The Good Cop, Bad Cop interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation. The good news is that these methods are now being taught to US government personnel. Having identified and defined the six domains that represented the breadth of interrogation methods (not including torture, of course), we were able to incorporate them into the survey in order to examine their self-reported rate of use by practitioners and, importantly, their perceived effectiveness relative to one another when the interrogation goals and scenarios were varied. LSI stands for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation (also Large Scale Integration and 389 more ) What is the abbreviation for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation? What If Everything You Believed About Love Was Wrong? However, the results of our efforts are available to both the scientific and professional communities. Last Modified Date: December 12, 2020. Is There a Scientific Way to Interrogate? The Science of Interrogation. It’s Trying to Save Us. In a well conducted interrogation, the questioner remains in control at all times. The operational mission of the HIG was to conduct interrogations of high-value terrorism suspects. Validate Their Feelings. By this we mean that the phenomenon is a fluid one, where what the interrogator does and how the suspect responds changes over the course of an interrogation, and the extant research has not begun to capture the complexities inherent to interrogation. While proponents claim these methods are necessary to compel uncooperative subjects to divulge critical information, critical analysis fails to justify their use. In recent years, however, the science of ethical interrogation in human intelligence gathering (HUMINT) and counterterrorism interrogation has blossomed due to the federal government’s interest in this research area for the first time in more than a half-century. An interrogation instruction manual that places considerable emphasis on detecting deception; advocates presenting suspects with crime-relevant images/sketches and interpreting their reactions to identify deceit and guilt prior to initiating an interrogation whose sole purpose is to extract a confession. The ethical conduct of experimental research would preclude any responsible scientist from systematically assessing the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation techniques”. New Books by A Sapir: "Intelligence" vs Common Sense. Scientific Interrogation: Hypnosis, Polygraphy, Narcoanalysis, Voice Stress and Pupillometrics. The release of the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence report on the CIA’s detention and interrogation program documents the use of so-called enhanced interrogation techniques (EITs) against terrorism suspects detained by the agency. What are the key elements in its arsenal? The report offers an opportunity for us to reflect upon the events that led to the use of EITs by the CIA, as well as the debate over their purported effectiveness. Currently, Dr. Kelly is leading a field experiment with the Philadelphia Police Department that examines how the context in which police interviews affect interviewees’ information disclosure and cooperation. 17 Allison D. Redlich and Christian Meissner, “Techniques and Controversies in the Interrogation of Suspects: The Artful Practice Versus the Scientific Study,” in Psychological Science in the Courtroom: Consensus and Controversy, ed. Legal Responses to Nonconsensual Pornography, Red Flag Laws: The Future of Extreme Risk Protection Orders. Unfortunately, ethical issues once again pervade any such discussion. We’ve Got Depression All Wrong. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. What is Interrogation? These studies assess the importance of social relationships, active listening and personal rapport in extracting information. With regard to differences between law enforcement and other types of interrogators, we found few significant differences in their self-reported practices. These two terms are often used interchangeably as if they refer to the same process. What is the science of interrogation? This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. We argued that neither the macro nor the micro levels were very useful in describing and studying interrogation, as the former is too broad and the latter too narrow to have much value. Medicine and education have turned to researchers for the development of evidence-based approaches. ), and the role of culture and language (including the influence of interpreters). In fact, existing research into current practices in the US indicates that the use of an accusatorial approach – characterized by accusation, confrontation and psychological manipulation – can produce false confessions if applied against innocent subjects. conventional beliefs as well as current behavioral science perspectives about the . This is the story of the techniques and science and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police interrogation … Read the original article . Chris Matthews, who hosts the MSNBC news program Hardball, is convinced that torture works. This device interrogation will assess if the pacemaker lead wires going into the heart are functioning normally, that the battery level is okay, and will assess if there have been any abnormal heart rhythms detected by the pacemaker. See Synonyms at ask. The Reid Technique makes a distinction between an interview and an interrogation. In general, the rate at which LAPD interrogators employed the domains was remarkably similar to those from the self-reported survey. Torture Not Scientifically Proven Drawing upon Col. Steven Kleinman’s (USAF-Ret.) In addition to its operational duties, the HIG was tasked with creating an unclassified program of research to evaluate best practices in lawful interrogation. A former US military interrogator in Iraq, who goes by the pseudonym Matthew Alexander, confirms O'Mara's view. Emerging scientific research reveals non-coercive methods to be the most effective interrogation techniques. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. Fascinating article about two psychologists who are studying interrogation techniques.. Now, two British researchers are quietly revolutionising the study and practice of interrogation. [See BOX for domain definitions and examples of constituent techniques for each.]. Do Narcissists Prefer to Date Other Narcissists? To be sure, such a science has been practiced for at least the past two decades, particularly with regard to distinguishing the factors leading to true versus false confessions in a law enforcement context. This volume addresses interrogation and torture at a unique moment. For the past four years, we have worked to develop new methods of intelligence interviewing and interrogation. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people use different parts of the brain when they are lying. In total, approximately 300 American and international practitioners completed the survey as a result of invitations sent out by professional societies and through our professional networks. We found that rapport and relationship building was reported to be significantly favored by the survey participants in general and confrontation/competition to be least employed, regardless of the goal (e.g., intelligence gathering, confession/prosecution) or scenario that was depicted in one of three interrogation vignettes. From the earliest days of reviewing foundational work in interrogation and investigative interviewing, including the Army Field Manual 2-22.3 and manuals such as the “Reid Technique,” we realized that little standardization existed in the language used to describe and research interrogation methods. LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation, Inc. LSI Webinar and LSI 24/7 "Distance Learning" LSI Seminar on. A complete description of the implications of this research is too detailed to be included here. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. (For a description of how this is done and graphs demonstrating the difference between “static” and “dynamic” examinations of interrogation, please see an earlier post at the CVE/HUMINT blog.) Start studying legal aspects 3. We hope that others are interested in such endeavors and encourage them to challenge our assumptions, replicate or refute our findings, and continue searching for the best language and methods that contribute to the science of interrogation. The report’s first finding agreed – the “CIA’s use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees”. Our findings clearly show that interrogation strategies that are based on building rapport and seek to understand a suspect’s motivation to cooperate are more effective than accusatory practices that look to raise anxiety levels, fabricate evidence, and minimize a suspect’s perception of their own culpability. However, the debate between critics and proponents of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to support their claims. Statement analysis, also called scientific content analysis (SCAN), is a technique for analyzing the words people use to try to determine if what they said is accurate.Proponents claim this technique can be used to detect concealed information, missing information, and whether the information that person has provided is true or false. The report concludes that the CIA program was more widespread and egregious than the American public – and Congressional oversight committees – had been led to believe. Lastly, in a paper that is currently under review, we are advancing what is known about interrogation by analyzing the “dynamic” nature of it. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. In the last two days, in the wake of the Senate Intelligence Committee’s damning report on CIA interrogation practices, he has allowed that so-called “enhanced interrogation” may be illegal and … 1 Boston Scientific provides devices tailored to individual needs. All opinions and analyses presented here are the author’s and do not reflect official policy or position of the HIG, FBI, or the U.S. Government. The purpose of the survey was to establish a sort of baseline of information about the methods interrogators use and perceive to be effective with uncooperative sources, detainees, or suspects. When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane and ethical interrogation that has the goal of eliciting verifiable, actionable intelligence and/or true confessions. To be sure, there are differences between HUMINT and law enforcement interrogations, especially in their goals or outcomes, but to date no systematic investigation into actual practices has conclusively found that what these various practitioners do dramatically differs. And efforts are now being made to integrate this science and practice into international law and global policing initiatives. Professionals Medical Specialties Furthermore, in statistical models, the negative effect on cooperation of the confrontation/competition domain lasts for fifteen minutes, controlling for the other domains employed in the interim. Up to 20% smaller and 24% thinner than some ICDs on the market, 2 the MINI offers all the power of a Boston Scientific ICD in a device that is the industry’s sleekest and designed for patient comfort. the act of interrogating; questioning. They look at the impact of the interrogation context (how should we setup the interrogation room? In 2009, the Obama administration created the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), an inter-agency group comprising personnel from the FBI, CIA, and (Defense Intelligence Agency) DIA. Preventing Violence . The Reid technique for interrogation is not a process designed for the discovery of facts and evidence. They have developed methods that enhance memory recall and evaluate what kind of questioning can help an interrogator judge whether a suspect is telling the truth or not. Between these two extremes are a number of aggressive tactics, such as stress positions, sleep deprivation, prolonged isolation, and exposure to temperature extremes. From my perspective, EITs are ethically indefensible. This conclusion is confirmed by the experiences of many highly skilled interrogators. an instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation. Steve Schrimpf of the Greeley (Colo.) Police Department has spent years conducting interviews and criminal interrogations. Not surprisingly, key findings in the report also call into question the claimed efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information. Much more research is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation. Just as important, it should prompt us to consider how we devise our future interrogation practices. In police work, a successful interrogation can be the difference between a closed case and a cold one. Our research program represents only the beginning of what is possible. Since 2010, I have led a group of internationally renowned psychologists from the US, UK, Sweden, Australia, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and the Middle East to do just that. interrogation. Boston Scientific is dedicated to transforming lives through innovative medical solutions that improve the health of patients around the world. It was originally part of the Reid Technique but is used as a standalone tactic these days. A confession is the end game to most interrogation sessions, “enhanced” or not, and intelligence researchers and psychologists have dug into what works and what doesn't. An interview is not accusatory and may be conducted relatively early during a police investigation. The science of persuasion. Next, we applied the taxonomy and domain framework to a sample of suspect interrogations supplied by the Robbery-Homicide Division of the Los Angeles Police Department (RHD-LAPD) to evaluate the use of methods in a real-world setting. See CHART for between-group comparison results. This article was originally published on The Conversation. “There's an erroneous mentality that for interrogation to be effective you have to somehow weaken the resistance of the detainee, physically or psychologically,” he told New Scientist. There is much work, however, to go in terms of refining the definitions and indicators (i.e., techniques) of the domains and especially their utility in the areas of training, practice, and policy. Human Information Gathering: How Can We Proceed? The Science of Interrogation. Sgt. While there, Dr. Kelly worked on three related data collection efforts funded by the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), including as Principal Investigator on a project entitled "The Dynamic Process of Interrogation," a content analysis of video and audio recorded interrogations. DYNAGEN™ MINI ICD The world’s smallest and thinnest ICD. Their use appears to violate both domestic and international law. Dr. Kelly has been published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Justice Quarterly and the Annual Review of Law and Social Science, and he is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society (APLS) and the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (iIIRG). For instance, using a measure of suspect cooperation as our dependent variable, we found that rapport and relationship building significantly increases cooperation but that emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and presentation of evidence significantly decreases suspect cooperation. gates 1. To examine by questioning formally or officially. By Christopher E. Kelly When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane … and "The Obama You Didn't Know" Presenting SCAN - Scientific Content Analysis: a new, innovative and effective technique. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. CIA Torture Techniques Harm Interrogators As Well. Soon after his inauguration, President Obama signed Executive Order 13491 that created a Special Task Force on Interrogations and Transfer Policies that ultimately lead to the creation of a new interagency collaboration called the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG). Studies conducted by our researchers are being published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at both academic and professional meetings. An interview can also be conducted in a variety of environments (e.g., ho… This effort lead to the publication of “A Taxonomy of Interrogation Methods” that differentiated between “macro” level dichotomies such as rapport-based / control-based interrogation, friendly / harsh, or maximization / minimization and the “micro” level specific techniques that are very refined in their definitions. Interrogation techniques range from so-called rapportbuilding—which often uses conversation to gain the trust and confidence of the suspect or source—to physical or mental torture that leaves the victim with permanent physical or mental scars. For instance, techniques that would appear operationally similar to one another would be defined differently across the works (e.g., minimization) depending on the context in which it could be employed. The absence of (and need for) scientific scrutiny on this issue is obvious. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. These techniques—particularly when used in combination—often constitute cruel, inhuman, or degradi… Interrogation is defined as the verbal questioning of a suspect by law enforcement authorities for the purpose of eliciting a statement or useful information. Without question, these findings on the dynamic nature of interrogation do not account for variables related to either the interrogator or the suspect, and the results only begin to account for the reciprocal effects of interpersonal interactions (i.e., whether and how the interrogator employs certain methods based on suspect behavior). Read the original article. A new publication, Interrogation: Expanding the Frontiers of Research and Practice, shares our findings with interrogation professionals, US Government trainers, and the public. 12/11/2014 11:46 am ET Updated Feb 10, 2015. An interview is ostensibly conducted when an officer does not have a lot of evidence to implicate the suspect. As such, we sought to identify a “lexicon” of interrogation methods in order to capture the entire spectrum of them in a research context, something that hadn’t previously been done. writings on the Army Field Manual, we identified six “meso” level domains that are conceptually distinct from one another and sorted more than 60 specific techniques into one of each: rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, context manipulation, confrontation/competition, collaboration, and presentation of evidence. Our group has produced more than 60 studies – from experimental research to interviews and surveys of interrogation professionals and systematic analysis of specific criminal and counterterrorist interrogation interviews. The most popular approach for handling suspects has no scientific support. How have they led to the conviction of the toughest criminals or cleared the innocent? Why are so many people drawn to conspiracy theories in times of crisis? He received his doctorate in criminal justice from Temple University and was a postdoctoral associate in the School of Criminal Justice at the University at Albany. Like the name already hints, one cop pretends to be the “bad guy,” while the other is the “good guy.” The bad cop interrogates the suspect first. Fascinating article about two psychologists who are studying interrogation techniques.. Now, two British researchers are quietly revolutionising the study and practice of interrogation. The Understudied Trait That Makes for Happier Relationships, Adult ADHD, Perfectionism, and Procrastination, Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, Want to Make Someone Feel Better? for obtaining information. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. It should encourage us to critically assess the ethical, legal, and scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based. This research is unclassified and is conducted with the oversight of Human Subjects Review Committees that protect the rights and welfare of study participants. The philosopher Helen Longino has called this process of critical scrutiny transformative interrogation: interrogation, because it’s tough, and transformative … An interrogation is a questioning session in which a questioner attempts to get information from someone who is believed to be involved with a situation or who may have information which could be of use. This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. Furthermore, no scientific assessment of the techniques can be offered to demonstrate their effectiveness in practice. As a research psychologist who has spent more than a decade assessing the effectiveness of various interview and interrogation methods, I regard release of the Senate report as a uniquely important event. Authors, Polygraph and Interrogation Experts. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people … We are working with US military, intelligence, and law enforcement agencies to introduce science-based methods into their formal training programs.
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